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You are here: Home Resources Molecular Biology Using Genetically-Altered Viruses in the Brain of Songbird

Using Genetically-Altered Viruses in the Brain of Songbird

by Stephanie White

The goal of this page is to provide a resource of information about using genetically altered viruses in the songbird brain. Click on the links to share what has or has not worked for you.

See review paper about using viruses in songbirds (Heston & White 2017)

Type of virus:



Adeno-Associated virus


Pseudo-rabies virus



(under each type of virus, the following headings should appear):

Virus sub-type, e.g. serotype of AAV

Source of virus:

Viral vector core at a university  link to core website, contact person

UCLA center

U Iowa center

UPenn center

Commercial source: NA at this time

Colleagues:      link to PI website and/or reference paper


Goal of project:

Anatomical mapping. Example:

Behavioral manipulation. Example:


Optogenetics: Ed Boyden’s webpage:

(under each type of project, the following headings should appear):

Brain region targeted, e. g. song control nucleus, higher order auditory area

Vector used including promoter(s), e.g. CMV + IRES

Cell type transduced, e.g. excitatory projection neuron

Reporter gene, e.g. GFP


Method of delivery, e.g. stereotaxic neurosurgery

Volume used, e.g. 1 ul per side bilaterally

Spread, e.g. limited to within region of interest, requires multiple injections, or transports to other regions?

Transduction efficiency: % cells transduced & level of transduction/cell

Timescale: onset following administration, peak expression, offset

Success or failure?           If failure, possible reasons.